Children and adults suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to struggle in making decisions and learning from feedback. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying these impaired mechanisms. Using computational modelling, we found that subjects with ADHD make more stochastic and exploratory choices. Using simultaneous EEG-fMRI, we determined the impaired neural signals by means of reward prediction errors. We found prediction error impairments in the medial frontal cortex. Moreover, we could determine the exact timing of this impairments, as it was reflected by an impaired Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) in the EEG.
Hauser TU, Iannaccone R, Ball J, Mathys C, Brandeis D, Walitza S & Brem S (2014). Role of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Impaired Decision Making in Juvenile Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry (formerly Arch Gen Psychiatry) 71(10):1165-1173.